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Frank R. Wolf International Religious Freedom Act

Public Law No: 114-281 (12/16/2016)

Frank R. Wolf International Religious Freedom Act 

                                 An Act
 
To amend the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998 to improve the 
   ability of the United States to advance religious freedom globally 
  through enhanced diplomacy, training, counterterrorism, and foreign 
  assistance efforts, and through stronger and more flexible political 
    responses to religious freedom violations and violent extremism 
   worldwide, and for other purposes. 

    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled, 

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE; TABLE OF CONTENTS.

    (a) Short Title.--This Act may be cited as the ``Frank R. Wolf 
International Religious Freedom Act''.

    (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents for this Act is as 
follows:

Sec. 1. Short title; table of contents.
Sec. 2. Findings; policy; sense of Congress.
Sec. 3. Definitions.

                 TITLE I--DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACTIVITIES

Sec. 101. Office on International Religious Freedom; Ambassador at Large 
           for International Religious Freedom.
Sec. 102. Annual Report on International Religious Freedom.
Sec. 103. Training for Foreign Service officers.
Sec. 104. Prisoner lists and issue briefs on religious freedom concerns.

                   TITLE II--NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL

Sec. 201. Special Adviser for International Religious Freedom.

                     TITLE III--PRESIDENTIAL ACTIONS

Sec. 301. Non-state actor designations.
Sec. 302. Presidential actions in response to particularly severe 
           violations of religious freedom.
Sec. 303. Report to Congress.
Sec. 304. Presidential waiver.
Sec. 305. Publication in the Federal Register.

                TITLE IV--PROMOTION OF RELIGIOUS FREEDOM

Sec. 401. Assistance for promoting religious freedom.

 TITLE V--DESIGNATED PERSONS LIST FOR PARTICULARLY SEVERE VIOLATIONS OF 
                            RELIGIOUS FREEDOM

Sec. 501. Designated Persons List for Particularly Severe Violations of 
           Religious Freedom.

                   TITLE VI--MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

Sec. 601. Miscellaneous provisions.
Sec. 602. Clerical amendments.

SEC. 2. FINDINGS; POLICY; SENSE OF CONGRESS.

    (a) Findings.--Section 2(a) of the International Religious Freedom 
Act of 1998 (22 U.S.C. 6401(a)) is amended--

            (1) in paragraph (3), by inserting ``The freedom of thought, 
        conscience, and religion is understood to protect theistic and 
        non-theistic beliefs and the right not to profess or practice 
        any religion.'' before ``Governments'';
            (2) in paragraph (4), by adding at the end the following: 
        ``A policy or practice of routinely denying applications for 
        visas for religious workers in a country can be indicative of a 
        poor state of religious freedom in that country.''; and
            (3) in paragraph (6)--
                    (A) by inserting ``and the specific targeting of 
                non-theists, humanists, and atheists because of their 
                beliefs'' after ``religious persecution''; and
                    (B) by inserting ``and in regions where non-state 
                actors exercise significant political power and 
                territorial control'' before the period at the end.

    (b) Policy.--Section 2(b) of the International Religious Freedom Act 
of 1998 (22 U.S.C. 6401(b)) is amended--

            (1) by redesignating paragraphs (1) through (5) as 
        subparagraphs (A) through (E);
            (2) by striking the matter preceding subparagraph (A), as 
        redesignated, and inserting the following:
            ``(1) In general.--The following shall be the policy of the 
        United States:''; and
            (3) by adding at the end the following:
            ``(2) Evolving policies and coordinated diplomatic 
        responses.--Because the promotion of international religious 
        freedom protects human rights, advances democracy abroad, and 
        advances United States interests in stability, security, and 
        development globally, the promotion of international religious 
        freedom requires new and evolving policies and diplomatic 
        responses that--
                    ``(A) are drawn from the expertise of the national 
                security agencies, the diplomatic services, and other 
                governmental agencies and nongovernmental organizations; 
                and
                    ``(B) are coordinated across and carried out by the 
                entire range of Federal agencies.''.

    (c) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) a policy or practice by the government of any foreign 
        country of routinely denying visa applications for religious 
        workers can be indicative of a poor state of religious freedom 
        in that country; and
            (2) the United States Government should seek to reverse any 
        such policy by reviewing the entirety of the bilateral 
        relationship between such country and the United States.

SEC. 3. DEFINITIONS.

    Section 3 of the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998 (22 
U.S.C. 6402) is amended--
            (1) by redesignating paragraph (13) as paragraph (16);
            (2) by redesignating paragraphs (10), (11), and (12) as 
        paragraphs (12), (13), and (14), respectively;
            (3) by inserting after paragraph (9) the following:
            ``(10) Institution of higher education.--The term 
        `institution of higher education' has the meaning given that 
        term in section 101 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 
        U.S.C. 1001).

            ``(11) Non-state actor.--The term `non-state actor' means a 
        nonsovereign entity that--
                    ``(A) exercises significant political power and 
                territorial control;
                    ``(B) is outside the control of a sovereign 
                government; and
                    ``(C) often employs violence in pursuit of its 
                objectives.'';
            (4) by inserting after paragraph (14), as redesignated, the 
        following:
            ``(15) Special watch list.--The term `Special Watch List' 
        means the Special Watch List described in section 
        402(b)(1)(A)(iii).''; and
            (5) in paragraph (16), as redesignated--
                    (A) in subparagraph (A)--
                          (i) by redesignating clauses (iv) and (v) as 
                      clauses (v) and (vi), respectively; and
                          (ii) by inserting after clause (iii) the 
                      following:
                          ``(iv) not professing a particular religion, 
                      or any religion;''; and
                    (B) in subparagraph (B)--
                          (i) by inserting ``conscience, non-theistic 
                      views, or'' before ``religious belief or 
                      practice''; and
                          (ii) by inserting ``forcibly compelling non-
                      believers or non-theists to recant their beliefs 
                      or to convert,'' after ``forced religious 
                      conversion,''.

                 TITLE I--DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACTIVITIES

SEC. 101. OFFICE ON INTERNATIONAL RELIGIOUS FREEDOM; AMBASSADOR AT 
                        LARGE FOR INTERNATIONAL RELIGIOUS FREEDOM.

    (a) In General.--Section 101 of the International Religious Freedom 
Act of 1998 (22 U.S.C. 6411) is amended--
            (1) in subsection (b), by inserting ``, and shall report 
        directly to the Secretary of State'' before the period at the 
        end;
            (2) in subsection (c)--
                    (A) in paragraph (1)--
                          (i) by striking ``responsibility'' and 
                      inserting ``responsibilities'';
                          (ii) by striking ``shall be to advance'' and 
                      inserting the following: ``shall be to--
                    ``(A) advance'';
                          (iii) in subparagraph (A), as redesignated, by 
                      striking the period at the end and inserting ``; 
                      and''; and
                          (iv) by adding at the end the following:
                    ``(B) integrate United States international 
                religious freedom policies and strategies into the 
                foreign policy efforts of the United States.'';
                    (B) in paragraph (2), by inserting ``the principal 
                adviser to'' before ``the Secretary of State'';
                    (C) in paragraph (3)--
                          (i) in subparagraph (A), by striking ``and'' 
                      at the end;
                          (ii) in subparagraph (B), by striking the 
                      period at the end and inserting ``; and''; and
                          (iii) by adding at the end the following:
                    ``(C) contacts with nongovernmental organizations 
                that have an impact on the state of religious freedom in 
                their respective societies or regions, or 
                internationally.'';
                    (D) by redesignating paragraph (4) as paragraph (5); 
                and
                    (E) by inserting after paragraph (3) the following:
            ``(4) Coordination responsibilities.--In order to promote 
        religious freedom as an interest of United States foreign 
        policy, the Ambassador at Large--
                    ``(A) shall coordinate international religious 
                freedom policies across all programs, projects, and 
                activities of the United States; and
                    ``(B) should participate in any interagency 
                processes on issues in which the promotion of 
                international religious freedom policy can advance 
                United States national security interests, including in 
                democracy promotion, stability, security, and 
                development globally.''; and
            (3) in subsection (d), by striking ``staff for the Office'' 
        and all that follows and inserting ``appropriate staff for the 
        Office, including full-time equivalent positions and other 
        temporary staff positions needed to compile, edit, and manage 
        the Annual Report under the direct supervision of the Ambassador 
        at Large, and for the conduct of investigations by the Office 
        and for necessary travel to carry out this 
        Act. The Secretary of State should provide 
        the Ambassador at Large with sufficient funding to carry out the 
        duties described in this section, including, as necessary, 
        representation funds. On the date on which the President's 
        annual budget request is submitted to Congress, the Secretary 
        shall submit an annual report to the appropriate congressional 
        committees that includes a report on staffing levels for the 
        International Religious Freedom Office.''.

    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that maintaining 
an adequate staffing level at the Office, such as was in place during 
fiscal year 2016, is necessary for the Office to carry out its important 
work.

SEC. 102. ANNUAL REPORT ON INTERNATIONAL RELIGIOUS FREEDOM.

    (a) In General.--Section 102(b)(1) of the International Religious 
Freedom Act of 1998 (22 U.S.C. 6412(b)(1)) is amended--
            (1) in the matter preceding subparagraph (A), by striking 
        ``September 1'' and inserting ``May 1'';
            (2) in subparagraph (A)--
                    (A) in clause (iii), by striking ``; and'' and 
                inserting ``as well as the routine denial of visa 
                applications for religious workers;'';
                    (B) by redesignating clause (iv) as clause (vii); 
                and
                    (C) by inserting after clause (iii) the following:
                          ``(iv) particularly severe violations of 
                      religious freedom in that country if such country 
                      does not have a functioning government or the 
                      government of such country does not control its 
                      territory;
                          ``(v) the identification of prisoners, to the 
                      extent possible, in that country pursuant to 
                      section 108(d);
                          ``(vi) any action taken by the government of 
                      that country to censor religious content, 
                      communications, or worship activities online, 
                      including descriptions of the targeted religious 
                      group, the content, communication, or activities 
                      censored, and the means used; and'';
            (3) in subparagraph (B), in the matter preceding clause 
        (i)--
                    (A) by inserting ``persecution of lawyers, 
                politicians, or other human rights advocates seeking to 
                defend the rights of members of religious groups or 
                highlight religious freedom violations, prohibitions on 
                ritual animal slaughter or male infant circumcision,'' 
                after ``entire religions,''; and
                    (B) by inserting ``policies that ban or restrict the 
                public manifestation of religious belief and the 
                peaceful involvement of religious groups or their 
                members in the political life of each such foreign 
                country,'' after ``such groups,'';
            (4) in subparagraph (C), by striking ``A description of 
        United States actions and'' and inserting ``A detailed 
        description of United States actions, diplomatic and political 
        coordination efforts, and other''; and
            (5) in subparagraph (F)(i)--
                    (A) by striking ``section 402(b)(1)'' and inserting 
                ``section 402(b)(1)(A)(ii)''; and
                    (B) by adding at the end the following: ``Any 
                country in which a non-state actor designated as an 
                entity of particular concern for religious freedom under 
                section 301 of the Frank R. Wolf International Religious 
                Freedom Act is located shall be included in this section 
                of the report.''.

    (b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) the original intent of the International Religious 
        Freedom Act of 1998 (22 U.S.C. 6401 et seq.) was to require 
        annual reports from both the Department of State and the 
        Commission on International Religious Freedom to be delivered 
        each year, during the same calendar year, and with at least 5 
        months separating these reports, in order to provide updated 
        information for policymakers, Members of Congress, and 
        nongovernmental organizations; and
            (2) given that the annual Country Reports on Human Rights 
        Practices no longer contain updated information on religious 
        freedom conditions globally, it is important that the Department 
        of State coordinate with the Commission to fulfill the original 
        intent of the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998.

SEC. 103. TRAINING FOR FOREIGN SERVICE OFFICERS.

    (a) Amendments to Foreign Service Act of 1980.--Section 708 of the 
Foreign Service Act of 1980 (22 U.S.C. 4028) is amended--
            (1) in subsection (a)--
                    (A) by redesignating paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) as 
                subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C), respectively;
                    (B) by striking ``(a) The Secretary of State'' and 
                inserting the following:

    ``(a) Human Rights, Religious Freedom, and Human Trafficking 
Training.--
            ``(1) In general.--The Secretary of State''; and
                    (C) by adding at the end the following:
            ``(2) Religious freedom training.--
                    ``(A)   In general.--In carrying 
                out the training required under paragraph (1)(B), the 
                Director of the George P. Shultz National Foreign 
                Affairs Training Center shall, not later than the one 
                year after the date of the enactment of the Frank R. 
                Wolf International Religious Freedom Act, conduct 
                training on religious freedom for all Foreign Service 
                officers, including all entry level officers, all 
                officers prior to departure for posting outside the 
                United States, and all outgoing deputy chiefs of mission 
                and ambassadors. Such training shall be included in--
                          ``(i) the A-100 course attended by all Foreign 
                      Service officers;
                          ``(ii) the courses required of every Foreign 
                      Service officer prior to a posting outside the 
                      United States, with segments tailored to the 
                      particular religious demography, religious freedom 
                      conditions, and United States strategies for 
                      advancing religious freedom, in each receiving 
                      country; and
                          ``(iii) the courses required of all outgoing 
                      deputy chiefs of mission and ambassadors.
                    
                ``(B)   Development of curriculum.--In carrying out the 
                training required under paragraph (1)(B), the Ambassador 
                at Large for International Religious Freedom, in 
                coordination with the Director of the George P. Shultz 
                National Foreign Affairs Training Center and other 
                Federal officials, as appropriate, and in consultation 
                with the United States Commission on International 
                Religious Freedom established under section 201(a) of 
                the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998 (22 
                U.S.C. 6431(a)), shall make recommendations to the 
                Secretary of State regarding a curriculum for the 
                training of United States Foreign Service officers under 
                paragraph (1)(B) on the scope and strategic value of 
                international religious freedom, how violations of 
                international religious freedom harm fundamental United 
                States interests, how the advancement of international 
                religious freedom can advance such interests, how United 
                States international religious freedom policy should be 
                carried out in practice by United States diplomats and 
                other Foreign Service officers, and the relevance and 
                relationship of international religious freedom to 
                United States defense, diplomacy, development, and 
                public affairs efforts. The Secretary of State should 
                ensure the availability of sufficient resources to 
                develop and implement such curriculum.
                    ``(C) Information sharing.--The curriculum and 
                training materials developed under this paragraph shall 
                be shared with the United States Armed Forces and other 
                Federal departments and agencies with personnel who are 
                stationed overseas, as appropriate, to provide training 
                on--
                          ``(i) United States religious freedom 
                      policies;
                          ``(ii) religious traditions;
                          ``(iii) religious engagement strategies;
                          ``(iv) religious and cultural issues; and
                          ``(v) efforts to counter violent religious 
                      extremism.'';
            (2) in subsection (b), by striking ``The Secretary of 
        State'' and inserting ``Refugees.--The Secretary of State''; and
            (3) in subsection (c), by striking ``The Secretary of 
        State'' and inserting ``Child Soldiers.--The Secretary of 
        State''.

    (b)   Report.--Not later than 180 days after the date 
of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of State, with the 
assistance of the Ambassador at Large for International Religious 
Freedom, and the Director of the Foreign Service Institute, located at 
the George P. Shultz National Foreign Affairs Training Center, shall 
submit a report to the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of 
Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate 
that contains a plan for undertaking training for Foreign Service 
officers under section 708 of the Foreign Services Act of 1980, as 
amended by subsection (a).

SEC. 104. PRISONER LISTS AND ISSUE BRIEFS ON RELIGIOUS FREEDOM 
                        CONCERNS.

    Section 108 of the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998 (22 
U.S.C. 6417) is amended--
            (1) in subsection (b), by striking ``faith,'' and inserting 
        ``activities, religious freedom advocacy, or efforts to protect 
        and advance the universally recognized right to the freedom of 
        religion,'';
            (2) in subsection (c), by striking ``, as appropriate, 
        provide'' and insert ``make available''; and
            (3) by adding at the end the following:

    ``(d) Victims List Maintained by the United States Commission on 
International Religious Freedom.--
            ``(1)  In general.--The Commission shall make publicly
         available, to the extent practicable, online and in official publications, lists of 
        persons it determines are imprisoned or detained, have 
        disappeared, been placed under house arrest, been tortured, or 
        subjected to forced renunciations of faith for their religious 
        activity or religious freedom advocacy by the government of a 
        foreign country that the Commission recommends for designation 
        as a country of particular concern for religious freedom under 
        section 402(b)(1)(A)(ii) or by a non-state actor that the 
        Commission recommends for designation as an entity of particular 
        concern for religious freedom under section 301 of the Frank R. 
        Wolf International Religious Freedom Act and include as much 
        publicly available information as practicable on the conditions 
        and circumstances of such persons.
            ``(2) Discretion.--In compiling lists under paragraph (1), 
        the Commission shall exercise all appropriate discretion, 
        including consideration of the safety and security of, and 
        benefit to, the persons who may be included on the lists and the 
        families of such persons.''.

                   TITLE II--NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL

SEC. 201. SPECIAL ADVISER FOR INTERNATIONAL RELIGIOUS FREEDOM.

    The position described in section 101(k) of the National Security 
Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 3021(k)) should assist the Ambassador at Large 
for International Religious Freedom to coordinate international 
religious freedom policies and strategies throughout the
executive branch and within any interagency policy committee of which 
the Ambassador at Large is a member.

                     TITLE III--PRESIDENTIAL ACTIONS

SEC. 301.  NON-STATE ACTOR DESIGNATIONS.

    (a) In General.--The President, concurrent with the annual foreign 
country review required under section 402(b)(1)(A) of the International 
Religious Freedom Act of 1998 (22 U.S.C. 6442(b)(1)(A)), shall--
            (1)  review and identify any non-state 
        actors operating in any such reviewed country or surrounding 
        region that have engaged in particularly severe violations of 
        religious freedom; and
            (2)   designate, in a manner 
        consistent with such Act, each such non-state actor as an entity 
        of particular concern for religious freedom.

    (b) Report.--Whenever the President designates a non-state actor 
under subsection (a) as an entity of particular concern for religious 
freedom, the President, as soon as practicable after the designation is 
made, shall submit a report to the appropriate congressional committees 
that describes the reasons for such designation.
    (c) Actions.--The President should take specific actions, when 
practicable, to address severe violations of religious freedom of non-
state actors that are designated under subsection (a)(2).
    (d) Department of State Annual Report.--The Secretary of State 
should include information detailing the reasons the President 
designated a non-state actor as an entity of particular concern for 
religious freedom under subsection (a) in the Annual Report required 
under section 102(b)(1) of the International Religious Freedom Act of 
1998 (22 U.S.C. 6412(b)(1)).
    (e) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
            (1) the Secretary of State should work with Congress and the 
        U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom--
                    (A) to create new political, financial, and 
                diplomatic tools to address severe violations of 
                religious freedom by non-state actors; and
                    (B) to update the actions the President can take 
                under section 405 of the International Religious Freedom 
                Act of 1998 (22 U.S.C. 6445);
            (2) governments must ultimately be held accountable for the 
        abuses that occur in their territories; and
            (3) any actions the President takes after designating a non-
        state actor as an entity of particular concern should also 
        involve high-level diplomacy with the government of the country 
        in which the non-state actor is operating.

    (f) Determinations of Responsible Parties.--In order to 
appropriately target Presidential actions under the International 
Religious Freedom Act of 1998 (22 U.S.C. 6401 et seq.), the President, 
with respect to each non-state actor designated as an entity of 
particular concern for religious freedom under subsection (a), shall 
seek to determine, to the extent practicable, the specific officials or 
members that are responsible for the particularly severe violations of 
religious freedom engaged in or tolerated by such non-state actor.
    (g) Definitions.--In this section, the terms ``appropriate 
congressional committees'', ``non-state actor'', and ``particularly 
severe violations of religious freedom'' have the meanings given such 
terms in section 3 of the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998 
(22 U.S.C. 6402), as amended by section 3 of this Act.

SEC. 302. PRESIDENTIAL ACTIONS IN RESPONSE TO PARTICULARLY SEVERE 
                        VIOLATIONS OF RELIGIOUS FREEDOM.

    Section 402 of the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998 (22 
U.S.C. 6442) is amended--
            (1) in subsection (b)--
                    (A) in paragraph (1)--
                          (i) by amending subparagraph (A) to read as 
                      follows:
                    ``(A) In general.--Not later than 90 days after the date on which 
                each Annual Report is submitted under section 102(b), 
                the President shall--
                          ``(i)  review the status of religious freedom 
                      in each foreign country to determine whether the 
                      government of that country has engaged in or 
                      tolerated particularly severe violations of 
                      religious freedom in each such country during the 
                      preceding 12 months or longer;
                          ``(ii) designate each country the government 
                      of which has engaged in or tolerated violations 
                      described in clause (i) as a country of particular 
                      concern for religious freedom; and
                          ``(iii) designate each country that engaged in 
                      or tolerated severe violations of religious 
                      freedom during the previous year, but does not 
                      meet, in the opinion of the President at the time 
                      of publication of the Annual Report, all of the 
                      criteria described in section 3(15) for 
                      designation under clause (ii) as being placed on a 
                      `Special Watch List'.''; and
                          (ii) in subparagraph (C), by striking ``prior 
                      to September 1 of the respective year'' and 
                      inserting ``before the date on which each Annual 
                      Report is submitted under section 102(b)'';
                    (B) by amending paragraph (3) to read as follows:
            ``(3) Congressional notification.--
                    ``(A)  In general.--Whenever the 
                President designates a country as a country of 
                particular concern for religious freedom under paragraph 
                (1)(A)(ii), the President, not later than 90 days after 
                such designation, shall submit to the appropriate 
                congressional committees--
                          ``(i) the designation of the country, signed 
                      by the President;
                          ``(ii) the identification, if any, of 
                      responsible parties determined under paragraph 
                      (2); and
                          ``(iii) a description of the actions taken 
                      under subsection (c), the purposes of the actions 
                      taken, and the effectiveness of the actions taken.
                    ``(B)   Removal of 
                designation.--A country that is designated as a country 
                of particular concern for religious freedom under 
                paragraph (1)(A)(ii) shall retain such designation until 
                the President determines and reports to the
                appropriate congressional committees that the country 
                should no longer be so designated.''; and
                    (C) by adding at the end the following:
            ``(4) Effect on designation as country of particular 
        concern.--The presence or absence of a country from the Special 
        Watch List in any given year shall not preclude the designation 
        of such country as a country of particular concern for religious 
        freedom under paragraph (1)(A)(ii) in any such year.''; and
            (2)  in subsection (c)(5), by striking ``the President must designate the specific 
        sanction or sanctions which he determines satisfy the 
        requirements of this subsection.'' and inserting ``the President 
        shall designate the specific sanction or sanctions that the 
        President determines satisfy the requirements under this 
        subsection and include a description of the impact of such 
        sanction or sanctions on each country.''.

SEC. 303. REPORT TO CONGRESS.

    Section 404(a)(4)(A) of the International Religious Freedom Act of 
1998 (22 U.S.C. 6444(a)(4)(A)) is amended--
            (1) in clause (ii), by striking ``and'' at the end;
            (2) in clause (iii), by striking the period at the end and 
        inserting ``; and''; and
            (3) by adding at the end the following:
                          ``(iv) the impact on the advancement of United 
                      States interests in democracy, human rights, and 
                      security, and a description of policy tools being 
                      applied in the country, including programs that 
                      target democratic stability, economic growth, and 
                      counterterrorism.''.

SEC. 304. PRESIDENTIAL WAIVER.

    Section 407 of the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998 (22 
U.S.C. 6447) is amended--
            (1) in subsection (a)--
                    (A) by striking ``subsection (b)'' and inserting 
                ``subsection (c)'';
                    (B) by inserting ``, for a single, 180-day period,'' 
                after ``may waive'';
                    (C) by striking paragraph (1); and
                    (D) by redesignating paragraphs (2) and (3) as 
                paragraphs (1) and (2), respectively;
            (2) by redesignating subsection (b) as subsection (c);
            (3) by inserting after subsection (a) the following:

    ``(b) Additional Authority.--Subject to subsection (c), the President may waive, for any 
additional specified period of time after the 180-day period described 
in subsection (a), the application of any of the actions described in 
paragraphs (9) through (15) of section 405(a) (or a commensurate 
substitute action) with respect to a country, if the President 
determines and reports to the appropriate congressional committees 
that--
            ``(1) the respective foreign government has ceased the 
        violations giving rise to the Presidential action; or
            ``(2) the important national interest of the United States 
        requires the exercise of such waiver authority.'';
            (4) in subsection (c), as redesignated, by inserting ``or 
        (b)'' after ``subsection (a)''; and
            (5) by adding at the end the following:
    ``(d) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that--
            ``(1) ongoing and persistent waivers of the application of 
        any of the actions described in paragraphs (9) through (15) of 
        section 405(a) (or commensurate substitute action) with respect 
        to a country do not fulfill the purposes of this Act; and
            ``(2) because the promotion of religious freedom is an 
        important interest of United States foreign policy, the 
        President, the Secretary of State, and other executive branch 
        officials, in consultation with Congress, should seek to find 
        ways to address existing violations, on a case-by-case basis, 
        through the actions described in section 405 or other 
        commensurate substitute action.''.

SEC. 305. PUBLICATION IN THE FEDERAL REGISTER.

    Section 408(a)(1) of the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998 
(22 U.S.C. 6448(a)(1)) is amended by adding at the end the following: 
``Any designation of a non-state actor as an entity of particular 
concern for religious freedom under section 301 of the Frank R. Wolf 
International Religious Freedom Act and, if applicable and to the extent 
practicable, the identities of individuals determined to be responsible 
for violations described in subsection (f) of such section.''.

                TITLE IV--PROMOTION OF RELIGIOUS FREEDOM

SEC. 401. ASSISTANCE FOR PROMOTING RELIGIOUS FREEDOM.

    (a) Availability of Assistance.--It is the sense of Congress that 
for each fiscal year that begins on or after the date of the enactment 
of this Act, the President should request sufficient appropriations from 
Congress to support--
            (1) the vigorous promotion of international religious 
        freedom and for projects to advance United States interests in 
        the protection and advancement of international religious 
        freedom, in particular, through grants to groups that--
                    (A) are capable of developing legal protections or 
                promoting cultural and societal understanding of 
                international norms of religious freedom;
                    (B) seek to address and mitigate religiously 
                motivated and sectarian violence and combat violent 
                extremism; or
                    (C) seek to strengthen investigations, reporting, 
                and monitoring of religious freedom violations, 
                including genocide perpetrated against religious 
                minorities; and
            (2) the establishment of an effective Religious Freedom 
        Defense Fund, to be administered by the Ambassador at Large for 
        International Religious Freedom, to provide grants for--
                    (A) victims of religious freedom abuses and their 
                families to cover legal and other expenses that may 
                arise from detention, imprisonment, torture, fines, and 
                other restrictions; and
                    (B) projects to help create and support training of 
                a new generation of defenders of religious freedom, 
                including legal and political advocates, and civil 
                society projects which seek to create advocacy networks, 
                strengthen legal representation, train and educate new
                religious freedom defenders, and build the capacity of 
                religious communities and rights defenders to protect 
                against religious freedom violations, mitigate societal 
                or sectarian violence, or minimize legal or other 
                restrictions of the right to freedom of religion.

    (b) Preference.--It is the sense of Congress that, in providing 
grants under subsection (a), the Ambassador at Large for International 
Religious Freedom should, as appropriate, give preference to projects 
targeting religious freedom violations in countries--
            (1) designated as countries of particular concern for 
        religious freedom under section 402(b)(1) of the International 
        Religious Freedom Act of 1998 (22 U.S.C. 6442(b)(1)); or
            (2) included on the Special Watch List described in section 
        402(b)(1)(A)(iii) of the International Religious Freedom Act of 
        1998, as added by section 302(1)(A)(i) of this Act.

    (c) Administration and Consultations.--
            (1) Administration.--Amounts made available under subsection 
        (a) shall be administered by the Ambassador at Large for 
        International Religious Freedom.
            (2) Consultations.--In developing priorities and policies 
        for providing grants authorized under subsection (a), including 
        programming and policy, the Ambassador at Large for 
        International Religious Freedom should consult with other 
        Federal agencies, including the United States Commission on 
        International Religious Freedom and, as appropriate, 
        nongovernmental organizations.

 TITLE V--DESIGNATED PERSONS LIST FOR PARTICULARLY SEVERE VIOLATIONS OF 
                            RELIGIOUS FREEDOM

SEC. 501. DESIGNATED PERSONS LIST FOR PARTICULARLY SEVERE 
                        VIOLATIONS OF RELIGIOUS FREEDOM.

    Title VI of the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998 (22 
U.S.C. 6471 et seq.) is amended--
            (1)  by redesignating section 605 as 
        section 606; and
            (2) by inserting after section 604 the following:

``SEC. 605.  DESIGNATED PERSONS LIST FOR 
                        PARTICULARLY SEVERE VIOLATIONS OF 
                        RELIGIOUS FREEDOM.

    ``(a) List.--
            ``(1)  In general.--
        The Secretary of State, in coordination with the Ambassador at 
        Large and in consultation with relevant government and 
        nongovernment experts, shall establish and maintain a list of 
        foreign individuals to whom a consular post has denied a visa on 
        the grounds of particularly severe violations of religious 
        freedom under section 212(a)(2)(G) of the Immigration and 
        Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(2)(G)), or who are subject to 
        financial sanctions or other measures for particularly severe 
        violations of freedom religion.
            ``(2) Reference.--The list required under paragraph (1) 
        shall be known as the `Designated Persons List for Particularly 
        Severe Violations of Religious Freedom'.

    ``(b) Report.--
            ``(1) In general.--The Secretary of State shall submit a 
        report to the appropriate congressional committees that contains 
        the list required under subsection (a), including, with respect 
        to each foreign individual on the list--
                    ``(A) the name of the individual and a description 
                of the particularly severe violation of religious 
                freedom committed by the individual;
                    ``(B) the name of the country or other location in 
                which such violation took place; and
                    ``(C) a description of the actions taken pursuant to 
                this Act or any other Act or Executive order in response 
                to such violation.
            ``(2) Submission and updates.--The Secretary of State shall 
        submit to the appropriate congressional committees--
                    ``(A) the initial report required under paragraph 
                (1) not later than 180 days after the date of the 
                enactment of the Frank R. Wolf International Religious 
                Freedom Act; and
                    ``(B) updates to the report every 180 days 
                thereafter and as new information becomes available.
            ``(3) Form.--The report required under paragraph (1) should 
        be submitted in unclassified form but may contain a classified 
        annex.
            ``(4) Definition.--In this subsection, the term `appropriate 
        congressional committees' means--
                    ``(A) the Committee on Foreign Relations of the 
                Senate;
                    ``(B) the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate;
                    ``(C) the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban 
                Affairs of the Senate;
                    ``(D) the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House 
                of Representatives;
                    ``(E) the Committee on Appropriations of the House 
                of Representatives; and
                    ``(F) the Committee on Financial Services of the 
                House of Representatives.''.

                   TITLE VI--MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

SEC. 601. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS.

    Title VII of the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998 (22 
U.S.C. 6481 et seq.) is amended by adding at the end the following:

``SEC. 702.  VOLUNTARY CODES OF CONDUCT FOR 
                        UNITED STATES INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER 
                        EDUCATION OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES.

    ``(a) Finding.--Congress recognizes the enduring importance of 
United States institutions of higher education worldwide--
            ``(1) for their potential for shaping positive leadership 
        and new educational models in host countries; and
            ``(2) for their emphasis on teaching universally recognized 
        rights of free inquiry and academic freedom.

    ``(b) Sense of Congress.--It is the sense of Congress that United 
States institutions of higher education operating campuses outside the 
United States or establishing any educational entities
with foreign governments, particularly with or in countries the 
governments of which engage in or tolerate severe violations of 
religious freedom as identified in the Annual Report, should seek to 
adopt a voluntary code of conduct for operating in such countries that 
should--
            ``(1) uphold the right of freedom of religion of their 
        employees and students, including the right to manifest that 
        religion peacefully as protected in international law;
            ``(2) ensure that the religious views and peaceful practice 
        of religion in no way affect, or be allowed to affect, the 
        status of a worker's or faculty member's employment or a 
        student's enrollment; and
            ``(3) make every effort in all negotiations, contracts, or 
        memoranda of understanding engaged in or constructed with a 
        foreign government to protect academic freedom and the rights 
        enshrined in the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights.

``SEC. 703.   SENSE OF CONGRESS REGARDING 
                        NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY TO PROMOTE 
                        RELIGIOUS FREEDOM THROUGH UNITED STATES 
                        FOREIGN POLICY.

    ``It is the sense of Congress that the annual national security 
strategy report of the President required under section 108 of the 
National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 3043)--
            ``(1) should promote international religious freedom as a 
        foreign policy and national security priority; and
            ``(2) should articulate that promotion of the right to 
        freedom of religion is a strategy that--
                    ``(A) protects other, related human rights, and 
                advances democracy outside the United States; and
                    ``(B) makes clear its importance to United States 
                foreign policy goals of stability, security, 
                development, and diplomacy;
            ``(3) should be a guide for the strategies and activities of 
        relevant Federal agencies; and
            ``(4) should inform the Department of Defense quadrennial 
        defense review under section 118 of title 10, United States 
        Code, and the Department of State Quadrennial Diplomacy and 
        Development Review.''.

SEC. 602. CLERICAL AMENDMENTS.

    The table of contents of the International Religious Freedom Act of 
1998 (22 U.S.C. 6401 note) is amended--
            (1) by striking the item relating to section 605 and 
        inserting the following:

``Sec. 606. Studies on the effect of expedited removal provisions on 
           asylum claims.'';

            (2) by inserting after the item relating to section 604 the 
        following:

``Sec. 605. Designated Persons List for Particularly Severe Violations 
           of Religious Freedom.'';

        and

            (3) by adding at the end the following:

``Sec. 702. Voluntary codes of conduct for United States institutions of 
           higher education operating outside the United States.
``Sec. 703. Sense of Congress regarding national security strategy to 
           promote religious freedom through United States foreign 
           policy.''.

    Approved December 16, 2016.