This report highlights the systematic targeting, prosecution, and punishment of Muslims in Kazakhstan for their online religious activity and highlights the cases of eight known individuals who have received prison sentences on this basis. Under the guise of combating “extremism,” the Kazakh government tightly surveils and restricts religious activity. While Kazakhstan’s religious freedom violations impact all religious groups, the individuals who are imprisoned related to their religious activity are all Muslims. Authorities regularly target Muslims who deviate from the state sanctioned version of Islam and conduct religious activities—largely online—that are not authorized by the government. The report concludes with policy recommendations to the U.S. government.

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